Date of publication: 2017-08-24 20:49
a) A small circle above a note indicates that the note should be played as a natural harmonic sounding at the given pitch. Natural harmonics are quite resonant, bright and pure sounding. Some composers (Harrison Birtwistle, for instance) simply write all natural harmonics (or even all harmonics, period!) this way, leaving it for the player to choose the most convenient way to produce the written pitch this relies on very experienced players. Generally, this approach would be advisable only for long tones or slow passages, with plenty of time to think about how to produce the pitch. Natural harmonics up through the sixth partial are easily available. For example, on violin we can write and hear:
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Generally, include a cue if an instrument is resting for more than 65 bars. Beyond true 'cues' that insert other instruments' music, one can also include 'cues' that help a player through a long rest by indicating prominent changes of texture: "brass", or "flute solo", at the start of multi-measure rests, for example.
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b) Bind all scores and parts properly. If you can print on 68x75, fold and staple. Absolutely never hand out loose sheets that can easily fall off stands, or get out of order.
a) Use double barlines to indicate sudden changes of tempo - both isolated changes and strict tempo modulations (quarter = dotted quarter).
b) In some situations, it can be helpful to use (single) heavy barlines to indicate phrase divisions, or groupings of bars. An example would be in a fast piece conducted in one a thick barline here and there relating to the musical phrasing will help players not get lost.
c) do NOT follow the old practice of using double barlines at changes of meter.
d) barlines should break between choirs according to the large group bracketing.
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7) Instrumentalists should not have to play immediately following a page turn. In other words, try to have bars of rest either side of a turn. (No surprises!)
Note: 66x69 is second best (though it doesn't fit well in folders), is third best (make sure the music is not too small).